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The history Of Various Gujar clans

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    The history Of Various Gujar clans
    Baisoya (Gujari: बैसोया) was one of the ruling clan of Gurjaras (or Gurjars). Alwar was under the rule of Gurjar king Karna Singh in 972 AD.
    According to Gurjar Bhaat (Brahmins who keep records of family Generation of Gurjars). In 972 AD when Gurjar Saroha king Karna Singh was ruling, they migrated to Ghazni city of Afghanistan and fought with a Muslim king there. In that war they killed son of that king and to avoid further clash with the king they headed back to Bharat (ancient India). On their way to Bharat (Ancient India), they slept in a field of cotton (Bai) (In Gujari : Bai Soye). This Bai soye distorted to Baisoya with time.
    Chechi or Chechhi (Gujari:चेची) is a gotra (lineage) among the Gurjars. According to Ajmer patels they are Lor Gurjars (descended from Ramchandra’s son Lava ). The Chechis are spread all over the world specially Central Asia. .[1] According to Rajputana Gazetteer Pushkar was held by Chechis until about 700 years ago.[2]
    Chechis were also known as Yuechi. Yuechi were central Asian nomad people of Tarim Basin. They used to supply jade to chinese people. Jade is called “Yu” in chinese language. Therefore Chechis came to be known as Yuechi in Ancient China. Yuechi tribe of Central Asia[10] Yuezhi, Wade-Giles romanization Yüeh-chih, also called Indo-Scyth, ancient people who ruled in Bactria and India from about 128 BCE to about 450 CE. The Yuezhi are first mentioned in Chinese sources at the beginning of the 2nd century BCE as nomads living in the western part of Gansuprovince, northwestern China. When Lao Shang (reigned c. 174–161 BCE), ruler of the Xiongnu (a powerful people of North China), defeated them and killed their king, the main body of the Yuezhi moved westward into Sogdiana and Bactria, putting an end to Greek rule in both regions.Some of them also moved into India and came to be known as Chechi. They and related tribes are the Asi (Asiani) and Tocharians (Tochari) of Western sources. About 128 BCE the Yuezhi were recorded living north of the Oxus River (Amu Darya), ruling Bactria as a dependency, but a little later the Great Yuezhi kingdom was in Bactria, and Sogdiana was occupied by the Dayuan (Tocharians). The remnant in Gansu were called Little Yuezhi. A new dynasty, the Kushan, was subsequently founded by one of the five chieftains among whom Bactria was divided. The Kushan kingdom extended its power southward and eastward into India and northward into Central Asia. From the 3rd century, however, Kushan power declined, and about 400CE the Kidara dynasty arose in Gandhara; the latter survived only to about 450 CE, when it was overwhelmed by the Hephthalites(originally a Yuezhi tribe).
    The names of places such as Chechenya, Chechian(POK) are coined after Chechis.
    Today Chechi Gujjars Found in Rajasthan , Haryana , Punjab , Uttar Pardesh , Uttrakhand , Himachal and Jammu&Kashmir . In Rajasthan Ajmer Chechi Gujjars have more than 250 Villages , and Haryana Near Palwal and Kosi kalan they have about 48 villages , also they have good population in punjab in Nawansahr,Chandigarh,kapurthala districts.
    The name Chechi also originates from Italy. As their are many Italians with the last name Chechi.Jury Chechi is a famous gymnast with the last name.
    Chaprana , Chawda dynasty
    The Chavda Kingdom or Chapa dynasty[1] also known as Gujar Chaparana[2] was an ancient Hindu Kshatriya dynasty which ruled northern Gujarat from 746 AD to 942 AD.
    It is stated in Bombay Gazetteer that Chavdas/chapa were Gurjars.[3] Historians such as Vincent Arthur Smith, Peter N. Stearns, William Leonard Langer also mentioned that Chapas or Chapotkatas were one of the ruling clans of the Gurjars.[1][4]
    Historian Vincent Arthur Smith states in his book “White Hun’ Coin of Vyaghramukha of the Chapa (Gurjara) Dynasty of Bhinmal” that Chapa, Cahuda, Chavda, Chavotaka and Chapotkata are identical. Mr. Jackson regards Chapa as being the original form, Chapotkata a sanskritized variant, meaning ‘strong bowman’. The chavda was a branch of the Gurjars who extended the power of the race in the south.[1]
    However, others believe, that Chawuras of Saurashtra or Gujarat were neither of Solar or Lunar race and consequently, it is supposed they were Scythians. They must have established themselves in India at very remote period, for we find Gehlots inter-married with them, when they were rulers of Balabhi. The capital of Chawdas was at Deobander, near Somnath on west coast of Kathiawar.[5]
    They settled down in Gujarat and later Saurashtra.The Chapa rulers were also titled as Rana. Therefore they were also known as Chaprana. The first king of the Chawra Kingdom was Jayshikhari Chawra. Panchsar, a city in north Gujarat, was capital of chapa Gurjara dynasty at the time of Jayshikhari Chawra. He was assassinated even before his son Vanraj Chavda was born. Vanraj Chavda went on to be the most successful Chawra ruler, founding historical cities such as Anhilpur Patan and Champaner. There were five Chawra kings after Vanraj. The last king Samantsinh Chawra did not have any children so he adopted his nephew Mulraj Solanki who overthrew him in 942 and set up what came to be known as the Solanki dynasty.[6]
    Solanki and Chavda dynasty have also ruled over Kutch in mediveal peiod 921 AD to 1500 AD. It was after Chawda dynasty became weak Jadeja emerged as powerful and ruled Kutch till India’s independence. In Saurahstra, Chavda kings once held sway over Port of Diu, Dwarka, Wadhwan, Prabhash Patan, Shiyalbet, Harshad (Minalpur), Chorwad, Koylana-Ghed, okha etc. Further,Varsoda Principality in Gujarat was ruled by Chawda kings till Independence on India in 1947.[7][8]
    The Tomara (Hindi – तँवर , तोमर) (also called Tanwar and Tuar in local dialects) are a clan, who claim descent from the Chandravanshi lineage of Mahabharata.[4][5]It includes Gurjars[1] and Rajputs. Middle Ages – 1st Millenium A.D.
    Historian Dr. Augustus Hoernle was of the opinion that the Tomaras were one of the ruling clans of Gurjars in the Gurjara-Pratihara era of North India- 4th – 8th century AD.,[1] ancient Kuru Kingdom continuing its existence in the ages when India was ruled by Gupta Kings. It remained one of the 18 Great States under Gupta Kings.[9] However, the lineage and existence of the clan predates the Gurjara entry into the Indian subcontinent by two millenias, and may have therefore been allied partners in the empire.
    Indraprastha – Delhi The modern city of Delhi is believed to be on the site of Indraprastha.[10] Delhi was established in 736CE by the Tomar/Tuar king Anangpal Tomar-I who re-established the Pandava ancestral capital.
    The Kingdom of Delhi was founded by Gurjar King Anangpal Tomar, whose dynasty, by virtue of descent from the Pandavas, claimed to be Lords Paramount of India —From A Pageant of India by Adolf Simon Waley[11]
    Anangpal Tomar
    The Tomara dynasty of Delhi lasted until Anangpal Tomar-II, who to quote Lt. Col. Tod, in his Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan was “justly entitled to be termed the paramount sovereign of Hindustan”. Anangpal Tomar II appointed his grandson (daughter’s son, and son of King of Ajmer), Prithviraj Chauhan, as the heir apparent. Some historians believe that Prithvaraj was merely a caretaker king as long as his grandfather was alive. Prithviraj was never crowned in Delhi, hence adding weight to the view that the Chauhan ruler usurped the throne from his maternal grandfather.[12][citation needed]. Anangpal Tomar II had 23 brothers and they each had territory of their own.[13]
    According to records kept by bards (or Jagas), King Anangpal Tomar made Prithviraj Chauhan only as caretaker when he went on a religious pilgrimage, as his own sons were very small at that time. When King Anangpal Tomar returned back, Prithviraj refused to hand over the kingdom to his maternal grandfather
    Today Gurjars have around 20 villages of Tomar or Tanwar Gujjars in and around Delhi which makes the perception strong that this was originally a Gurjar clan. These Gurjar Tanwars proved to be the toughest repellents to the Britishers in 1857 during the first war of independence. They captured the Matcalfe house for 12 days cutting all supplies to British Armies and declaring independence for Delhi (though for a small period of time only).[
    Baisla is one of the many clans of the Gurjars.They are also known as Bainsle, Baisla, Besle, Bansla, Bainsla and Baisle.
    During 8th century, there was one ruler under Gurjar Pratihars named Vishal Dev Chauhan from Ajmer. This Vishal Dev was better known by his nickname (or simple form of his name) “Bisal dev”.Descendents of Bishal Dev Chauhan were called baisle or Bainsla.[1]
    History Vishal Dev Chauhan Baislas are descendant of Vishal Dev Chauhan.Vishal Dev Chauhan, also known as Bissal Dev or Bisaldev were ruling in Ajmer during 8th century.Bisal Dev was brother of Mandal ji, who founded the Mandal lake near Bhilwara.God Devnarayan was born in the family of Mandal Ji. In the 8th century AD Bisal Dev Chauhan, is said to have successfully resisted an Arab intrusion.[2]He was also credited to help Gurjar tomars to gain control of Delhi.[3]
    Gaur Brahmin The Gaur Brahmin or Adh Brahmin are a Brahmin sub-caste found in North India.[1] Gurjar gaur Brahmins were priests of the Gurjars (Gujars or Gujjars) during the reign of the Gurjars. They are very high classed Brahmans.
    Nāgar Gurjar
    Nagari or Nāgar is one of the various clans of the Gurjars.The other variations of Nagari are Nagara, Nagada, nagdi etc. They have special strength in Bulandshahr,Noida,Faridabad,Meerut,Ghaziabad Uttar Pradesh.[1]
    Udaipur was ruled by Nagari Gurjars till the time of the invasion of Babur. Udai Singh Nagari was the last Gurjar ruler.[2][3][4]It is said that Nāgar Gurjars established their kingdom in 1st century along with Kushan Gurjars.The king was Maharaja Subhau Nagar.
    Raja Nain Singh, who restored the fort of Parikshitgarh in eighteenth century, belonged to this clan of the Gurjars. He was the ruler of Parikshitgarh area. When Gurjars of parikshitgarh area participated in the Mutiny of 1857 , the fort was dismantled, to be used as a police station.[5]
    BARGUJARS The Bargujar or Badgujars[3] is one of the ancient Hindu Suryavanshi Brahman[4], Meo, Rajput and Gurjar[5] and Rajput[6][7][8][9] clan of India Bargujars were originally Gujjars.[10] As per A.H.Bingley, the name of this clan is derived from Hindi bara (“great”) and ‘Gujar’, forming “great Gujars”. But he also mentions that Bargujars being of Solar race i.e. Suryavanshi and like Gehlots worship lord Rama and claim descant from Lava, elder son of Rama[11] Historian R. V. Russell also stated that Bargujars have been simply a section of the Gujjars.[12] Like most of the Gurjars, Bargujars also claim descendants from Lord Rama’s elder son Lava.[13]hence they use the surname Raghav. Bargujars also use surname ‘sikarwar’.
    Kusane or Kushane or Kush or Kushana or Kasana or Kansana Gujjaras are descendant from Kush, son of lord Rama.[4] and also known as to be Suryavanshi Kshatriyas.
    Historians such as Sir James Campbell, General Crook, Colonel Todd, Mr. Forbs, Dr. Bhagwan Lal Inder Ji, Pran Nath Chopra etc were of the view that present Kasana gotra of Gurjars are successors of great Kushans.[1] General Cunningham also identified Kushans as Gurjars.[2] Word Gusur is referred in Rabatak inscription of Kushan king Kanishka. According to a number of scholars the Word Gusur, which means Kulputra or man or woman born in high family, in this inscription stands for Gujar or Gurjaras. Kasana clan of Gujars is found in northwestern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan.
    According to Bards of Gurjars, the area beyond Kashmirl in earlier period was called as Khattan(real name Khotan) in India. The Gujjar kings serving as fuedatories of Gujjar Empire there were called the Rana of Khattan and hence Khatana. Khatana rulers ruled the kingdom Of Khotan(Tarim Basin) for many years. They got their name from Khotan(now Hotan).
    After the fall of Gujjars Empire in 954AD, the other Gujjars kingdoms like Gujjar Chauhan of Ajmer, Gujjar Tanwar of Delhi, the Gujjar Chadellas of Kalinjar, The Gujjar Solankis of Patan, Gujjar Parmars of Malwa, Ujjain, and the former Imperials the Gujjar Pratihar of Kannauj stopped supporting them and started fighting among themselves. Hence Jai Pal Khatana and Anand Pal Khatana were defeated by Mahmud Gaznavi after a stiff resistance. Later when a joint financial help from Kannauj, Ajmer, and kalinjar was sent it was of no use since they already lost much of their fighting power by that time.
    Saadu Maata Gurjari, mother of God Devnarayan belonged to this clan of Gurjars.He was daughter of Duda Khatana, the king of Malwa. Raja Dilip Singh Judev of Samthar also belongs to Khatana clan.
    Dedhar or Dedha is one of the ruling clan of the Gurjars. The majority of Gujjar Dedhas reside in Northern India and Dedhars in Pakistan came from a small village called Samote in Surankote in India-occupied Kashmir. Dedhar could also be read as dedharyal in Northern Pakistan.
    According to the Gurjar Bhaats (priests which keep family records of the Gujjars), Dedhars were branch of the Gurjar Pratihars. Like Gurjar Pratihars, Gurjar Dedhas also claim to be descended from Raghuvamshi Lakshmana, the younger brother of Rama.
    There are many prominent Gujjar families in the Pakistan’s Kashmir region who travelled from Surankote. Some of the Gurjar Dedhar places are: Pramekot, Rahimkot, Riat, Dadyal, Mirpur, Bhalot Chowk (Mirpur), Mandi Village (Ddayal), Saliah Village (Dayal), Kund (Dadyal), Kotli, Sehnsa, (Khoi Ratta, Anderla Kothera, Shaheen Abad, Dakkhana, Phalini, Khor, Ghayeen, Kerjai, Barali Gala, Nidi Sohana etc.
    In the Nakiyal District-Kotli, the Gujjars are majority and they are said to be dominating in this region. The common Gujjars villages in Teh Nakiyal are Nirgal, Karaila, Lanjot, Mhandethar, Balmi, Narran ni Tarrar, Bhandi, Tharkundi, Palani, Jair, Mohrha sharief, Khandhar, Supply, Phanag, Bagh (Haveli), Hajirah, Abbaspour Bura Jungle, Muzaffarabad and Neelum District. It is said that most of them in Pakistan adopted Islam during seventeenth century.
    Mian Mohammed Bakhsh the famous poet is also a famous personality belonging to the Dedhar Clan
    Chauhan, Chouhan or Chu han
    is a clan that ruled parts of northern India in the medieval period. Prithviraj Chauhan, the last Hindu king of Delhi, was a member of this community.Chauhans was one of the main Clan of Gurjars before they asserted their independence from Gurjar Kingdom.
    Ajay Raj (Anuraj)
    Chauhans[8] asserted their independence from the Gurjara Pratiharas, and in the early eleventh century, the Sakhambari king Ajaya-Raja founded the city of Ajayameru (Ajmer)[9] in the southern part of their kingdom.
    His son was the famous Chauhan King Bisaldeo who was famous for repulsing Chaluka attacks and that of western powers and one time led an army of Gurjar Pratihar Kings,[10][dubious – discuss] his contemporaries were: Jeypal Tuar of Delhi, Durlabh and Bhim Solanki of Patun-Gujarat, Parmara Raja Bhoj and Udaydit of Dhar and Padamsi and Tejsi of Mewar.
    Bisaldev Chauhan fights Chaluk of Patan
    This unreferenced section requires citations to ensureverifiability.
    In 936 V.S. (993 A.D.) he reduced Abu, Jalor on way to destroy the Solanki (Chaluk) of Patan – Bhim Singh ‘Baluk’, with a force that was 70,000 strong with all the allies.[11] Further he took land of Girnar, Wagar and Sorath and total 56 cities and molested common people, a sin for warrior in those days. The Chaluka King Baluka (Bhim) Rai had 17000 strong army at Patan and 30000 Horsemen from Lar, he came to Abu for fight.
    Someshwar defeats Kamdhuj of Kannauj
    Raja Vijaychand Kamdhuj attacked the Anangpal Tuar of Delhi and at that time, Raja Someshwar of Ajmer forged an alliance with Anangpal Tuar of Delhi.[12][dubious – discuss] At Kalindi River (Kalinadi-Black River) Vijaychand formed army in Sarpa (vyuha). Chauhan was the victor of the ensuing battle.
    Mukut Bandh and Mandaleshwar are traditionally the two type of samanta (a title for noble vassals) accorded by Chauhans. The Mukut Bandh owned land but accepted the suzerainty of the Chauhans, while Mandaleshwar were granted jagirs by Chauhan rulers.[13]
    Lohmod is a Gujari/Hindi word, where “Loh” stands for Iron and “Mod” for Bending.They started using this surname from the day when their ancestor King Jagdev Panwar bended the Iron rod of Sanwa Mann (60 kgs) in Pushkar.Pushkar had been under sway of Gurjars and is still a Gurjar pilgrimage. So we can say every Lohia child with his/her religion Gurjar has his/her ancestor King Jagdev Panwar and blood in him/her is of Panwar Clan of Gurjar because of this both Clans have the brotherhood and no marriage are done with Panwars by Lohias and no marriages are done with Lohias by Panwars so, indirectly we can say that both are same Clans in respect of doing Marriages in.
    Present populaiton
    Most of the Lohia [(Lohmods)(Lohamarods)] Villages or Places are : 1. Aaya Nagar (Delhi); 2. Ghitorni (Delhi); 3. Nathupur (Delhi); 4. Jharera (Delhi Cantt); 5. Prahladpur (Delhi Cantt); 6. Mohiyapur(Noida, UP); 7. Veersinghpur (Ghaziabad, UP); 8. Dabra (G.B.Nagar, Greater Noida UP); 9. Nanu Fahethpur Baghpat Road (Meerut UP); 10. Anagpur Dairy (Faridabad,Haryana) and etc.
    The main temples of Lohia’s [(Lohmods)(Lohamarods)] or in which they believe are: Satti Mata in Ayya Nagar Village’ (This Temple was about 4X4ft in size but (Mata rani ki krpa se abb ye Mandir 3 gaon ke logo ke milne ke baad constrution ke state mein hai {date-12-Mar-2012}.) Shitla Mata in Gurgoan (The Temple is about in 2500 sqft in area) Baba Magaldas in Ayya Nagar Village.(Temple is in the Main Village Ayya Nagar)
    Bagri clan
    Bagri (Gujari: बागड़ी) is a warrior clan found among Gurjars[1] living in Rajasthan, Sainis living in Haryana and Punjab. Jatts and Khatris living in thePunjab region of Northern India. They are an Indo-Aryan people and their main occupation is agriculture.Bagri clan traditionally belonged to theKshatriya caste.
    Bagris come from the large and prominent ethnic groups, the Jatts in Punjab and the Gurjar in Rajasthan. Bagri is a gotra among Mali caste of Rajasthan too. Bagris are one of the 72 sub-clans in Jats and from 84 sub clans of Gurjars.Jats and Gurjar are a brave, hardworking and independent minded people known for their military prowess;[citation needed] many of them were recruited into the British Indian Army during World War I. in village chak kalan people of bagri clan are Jatt Rajputs of Tonk District, Rajasthan. Their real surname is Rajput Sehajpal Bhatti, Bagri. They belong to most upper caste of the Indian society. they are descents of Aryan community. They are royal people, and their name starts from Maharaja or Raja for male, Rani for female, Kunwar for prince and Kunwari for princess.
    Bagree surname is common surname found in Maheshwari caste of Rajasthan. Now they have widespread from their native Rajasthan to many Indian metros cities like Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Hydrabad, etc. and other states and cities as well. They belongs to Marwari bania community of Rajasthan.
    Bagri is also one of the clan of Saini community of Haryana.[2]
    People belonging to the Bagri clan are found in large numbers as Sikhs in Punjab state, India and as Muslims in Punjab provence of Pakistan. Many Bagris have now emigrated to the UK, USA, Canada, Spain, Gareek.
    Most Bagris come from a village in Punjab called Chak Kalan (also called Chak Bagrian), near Jullundar. They migrated from Rajastan about 300–400 years ago.However Gurjar Bagris are still found in Rajasthan.They are heirs of Mahraja Ranjit Singh Rajput Sehajpal Bhatti Bagri. As king Ranjit singh Bagri lost his empire in a battle and people migrated to punjab from rajasthan.
    Hoon is a sub clan of Gujars. Hoon gujars are descendants of White Huns( Epthalites) who used to reign in central Asia along with Yuechi/ Kushans and Tochars. They were a branch of Yuechi/ Chechi Gujars who were left behind when Yuechis migrated to India. In 4th century AD they also came in India and joined their brothers. After their Assimilation with Gujars, Gujars became very powerful and they established many kingdoms in north western India. The Gurjars swayed the northwestern India and ruled for many centuries. Entire north western India was known as Gujar rashtra. Gujars were supreme power in those times. The title “Gurjar” was considered as the title of honour and bravery.
    The first Hun attack under Chu-Han in 455 AD was repelled back by SkandaGupta and India was saved from Huns for a short period of 10 years. In 465 AD fresh Hun armies attacked Guptas under Tomar-han or Tomaran-1. This time the Guptas were totally vanished by Hunas and many flourishing cities under Gupta territories were completely demolished. The ruling seat of hepthallites was Sakala (modern Sialkot in paksitan). Tourman-2 was killed by Gupta ruler Bhanugupta in 510 AD. After him his son Mihirkul* (means Suryavanshi) took over the throne. He was also defeated by Yasodharman in 528 AD. The remainingHuns were assimilated into Gurjar population. The Huns ruled Kashmir until 567 AD under Vasukula, son of Mihirkula.
    The Hephthalites/Huna with their capital at Bamiyan continued the pressure on ancient India’s northwest frontier and broke east by the end of the fifth century, hastening the disintegration of the Gupta Empire. They made their capital at the city of Sakala, modern Sialkot in Pakistan, under their Emperor Mihirakula.
    Famous White Hun Rulers in India
    Chu-han (?-454)
    Tomar-Han Akhsunvar (467- 496)
    Tomar-Han (496?- 502) or Tomaran-1
    Mihirakula (502 – 530/540)
    Tomaran-2 (530-567)
    Vasukula-2 (530 – 567)
    Narendra or Narana (570-600)
    Gopladitya (ruled Kasmir in 7th century)
    Mihiragula was succeeded by his son called Ajitanjanya (Toraman-2 or Vasukula?)
    The last Hephthal king Narana/Narendra managed to maintain some kind of rule between 570 and 600 AD over the ‘nspk’ or ‘napki’ or ‘nezak’ tribes that remained after most of the Alχon had fled to the west.
    The last Huna King, Yudhishthira, ruled until about 670, when he was replaced by the Turk Shahi dynasty. Huna/
    Hephthalites are among the ancestors of modern-day Pashtuns and in particular of the Abdali Pashtun tribe.
    Karahana is a sub clan of Gujars, Karahana were the rulers of Karahan Kingdom in Khotan / Khattan (Xin jiang, China)
    The Karahan controlled the vast areas south of the Tianshan Mountains and Hezhong (Samarkand) in Central Asia.
    The Uighur local regimes had very close relations with the ruling dynasties in the Central Plains. The ruler of the Karahan Kingdom called himself the “Peach Stone Khan,” meaning “Chinese Khan,” to indicate that he was a Chinese subject. In 1009, after occupying Yutian, Karahan sent envoys with tribute to the emperor of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127). In 1063, the Northern Song conferred upon the ruler of Karahan the title of “King of Sworn Allegiance.” In the third year after the founding of the Northern Song Dynasty, the Gaochang Uighurs sent 42 envoys bearing tribute to the Northern Song court.
    The Gujar sections
    The Gujar Rawat Mandan got is found in the Bawal nizamat of Nabha. It traces its descent to one Rawat who fell in love with a damsel, Gorsi, whom he only carried off after a great struggle. His mesalliance cost him his status as a Rajput and he became a Gujar. The got derives its name from him and from the number of heads (mandaji) which fell in the struggle for Gorsi. This got is numerous in Jaipur, where it keeps its women in parda and forbids widow remarriage, but this is allowed in Nabha. Formerly the Rawat Mandan did not roof their houses or put planks to their doorways, though they now do so. A child’s first tonsure should be performed at the shrine of Swami Pun Das in Rewari tahsil.
    The Chokar Gujar of Nabha, who appear to be distinct from the Chhokar, trace their descent from Sankat, a Chauhan Gurjar Rajput of Sambhar in Jaipur, who was a great robber. Once on the road he forcibly espoused a beautiful girl whose kinsmen came to her aid, but Sankat sought help from Ban Deo and he and his comrades took the shapes of birds, and escaped. A barber too rang a wedding-bell in front of their pursuers, and they resolved to turn back. So the got of Sankat was called Chokar, ‘ one who misses,’ and it still affects Ban Deo, holding the first tonsure of its children at his shrine in Jaipur, never burning cotton sticks for fuel and only using cotton after first offering it to Ban Deo.
    In Nabha the Bhargar, Chaprana, Doi, Kasana, Kharana and Sardhana Gujars all vaguely claim Rajput origin, but unlike other Hindu Gujars they only avoid three gots in marriage, permitting it in the mother’s father’s got. They specially affect Devi and do not give the beestings of a cow or buffalo to any one till the Amawas, when they cook rice in the milk, place it on a spot plastered with cow-dung and then give it to their children. The Bhargar, like the Rawat Mandan, use no doors or roofs of timber, and ascribe this tabu to the fact that one of their women became a sati and a house raised in her honour was left incomplete.*
    The Melu Gujars in Nabha are converts from Hinduism, but still avoid four gots in marriage. They do not build two hearths close together, or wear blue cloth. Their women wear gowns. This got never sell milk, lest the animal fall ill, but they may sell ghi.
    The elements of the Gujars are not easy to describe. Local traditions, as has already been shown, vary as to the origins of many clans,
    The Gujar elements
    but the following addenda may be noted as to the clans descended from the various Rajput races ; —
    Chauhan origin is claimed by the Bhalesar, ‘sons of Bhallu,’ Babarwal, Jhandar, Kalsian (in Karnal).
    Panwar descent is claimed by the Bahlot, Chhali, Phambhra, ‘sons of Phamar’ and Paur*,
    Jadu (Chandarbansi) descent by the Chhokar (in Karnal),
    Janjua origin by the Barrah, Khokhar (Chandarbansi) by the Kawal (in Karnal), Manhas by the Dhinda,
    Sombansi by the Dhakkar,
    Surajbansi by the Saramdna, and
    Tur by the Chhaman (in Karnal).
    Folk-etymology and legendary lore have been busily engaged in finding explanations of various clan names among the Gujars. Thus of the Barras, (a word meaning ‘holy’) it is said that their ancestorFatihulla used to bring water from the river at Multan barefoot, for his spiritual guide’s ablutions. One day the Pir saw that his disciple’s foot had been pierced with thorns, so he gave him his shoes, but Fatihulla made them into a cap, as worthy to be so worn, and again his feet were pierced with thorns. The Pir seeing this blessed him and called him Barra.†
    The Bharyar claim descent from Raja, Karn. The children of his descendant Raja Dhal always used to die and his physicians advised him to feed his next child on the milk of a she- wolf (bhairya), whence the name Bharyar. Buta embraced Islam in Babar’s time and settled in Shahpur.
    Of the Gajgahi section it is said that Wali, their ancestor, was a Khatana who wore a gajgah or horse’s silver ornament, so his descendants are now called Gajgahi.
    Another legend makes the Khatanas descendants of Raja Jaspal and the Pandavas- Jaspal had extended his dominions from Thanesar to Jhelum and, when Sultan Mahmud Sabuktagin invaded Hindustan, Jaspal met him at Attock, but was defeated and slain. His son, Anandpal, ruled for two years at Lahore and then fled to Hindustan, leaving two sons, Khatana and Jaideo or Jagdeo, of whom the former ruled at Lahore and turned Muhammadan. Other Gujar clans also claim descent fromAnandpal, and ‘Sultan Mahmud assigned the Khatanas jagirs in Gujrat where they founded Shahpur, now a deserted mound near Chak Dina.
    The Khatanas are not only a leading Gujar clan but have many off-shoots in the minor sections, such as the Gajgahis, Topas, Amranas, Awanas, Bhunds, Bukkans, Thilas, and the Jangal, Debar, Doi, and Lohsar clans.
    Hindu Khatanas are also found in the Bawal nizamat of Nabha and there claim Tur Rajput origin, deriving their name from Khatu Nagar, a village in Jaipur. As followers of Bawa Mohan DasBhadawaswala
    The Topas are really Khatanas and when the Jats and Gujars were competing for the honour of giving the biggest contribution to Akbar’s rebuilding of Gujrat town one Adam, a Khatana, paid a lakh and a quarter of rupees into the imperial treasury, measuring the money in a topa, whence his descendants are so named.

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