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Nagabhata II Gurjar Pratihar

Nagabhata II (reign 805–833) was an Indian Emperor of Pratihara Dynasty.He ascended the throne of Pratihara Empire after his father Vatsraja.[1] His mother was queen Sundari-Devi. He was designated with imperial titles – ParamabhattarakaMaharajadhiraja, and Paramesvara after conquest of Kannauj.[2][3]


Nagabhata II finds a mention in the Gwalior inscription. He defeated the rulers of Sindhu, Andhra, Vidarbha, Kalinga, Matsyas, Vatsas, Malavas, Kiratas, Anartas and the Arabs. He had defeated Saindhava ruler Ranaka I and conquered the western Saurashtra (now in Gujarat).[4][5] He also defeated Chakrayudh at Kannauj.[6]: 20  He was later defeated by the Rashtrakuta Emperor Govinda III (793–814) and lost Malwa and Gujarat. However, he recovered Malwa from the Rashtrakutas, conquered Kanauj and the Indo-Gangetic Plain as far as Bihar from the Palas, and again checked the Muslims in the west. Kanauj became the center of the Pratihara state, which covered much of northern India during the peak of their power (836–910).[2]

An inscription of his descendant, Mihira Bhoja describes Nagabhata II as “who, desirous of the great growth of virtuous acts, enjoined in the Veda, performed a series of religious ceremonies according to the custom of Kshatriya families.” Nagabhata is said to have been a devotee of Bhagavati.[7] 

Nagabhatta faced a large Pala army in his early career, which had an elephant force of 50,000, led by King Dharmapala himself at Mungar, Nagabhata emerged victorious. The Chatsu Inscription of his Guhila feudatory Baladitya (813 AD) states that Shankaragana Guhila, who fought on the behalf of Vatsaraja fulfilled his vow by

“defeating Bhata, the Gauda ruler, in battle, and presented the earth at his master’s(Vatsaraja) feet”.


Nagabhata II was succeeded by Ramabhadra. Some earlier historians identified Nagabhata with Āma, who according to the Jain accounts, died in 832-833 CE (see Āma#Identification with Nagabhata II). Based on this identification, Nagabhata’s reign is theorized to have ended around 833 CE. Historian Shyam Manohar Mishra, who disagrees with this identification, places Nagabhata’s death around 825 CE.[9]


  1. ^ Panchānana Rāya (1939). A historical review of Hindu India: 300 B. C. to 1200 A. D. I. M. H. Press. p. 125.
  2. Jump up to:a b Rama Shankar Tripathi 1964, p. 233.
  3. ^ Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rajasthan: Rupa & Company. p. 275. ISBN 8129108909.
  4. ^ History of Rajasthan Rima Hooja pg – 276 Roopa Publishers
  5. ^ Sailendra Nath Sen (1 January 1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 343. ISBN 978-81-224-1198-0.
  6. ^ Sen, S.N., 2013, A Textbook of Medieval Indian History, Delhi: Primus Books, ISBN 9789380607344
  7. ^ R.K. Gupta, S.R. Bakshi (2008). Rajasthan Through the Ages,Studies in Indian history1. Rajasthan: Swarup & Sons. p. 42. ISBN 9788176258418.
  8. ^ Hooja, Rima (2006). A History of Rajasthan. Rajasthan: Rupa & Company. p. 277. ISBN 8129108909.
  9. ^ Shyam Manohar Mishra 1977, pp. 121–124.


Preceded byVatsaraja (780–800)Gurjara Pratihara Emperor
Succeeded byRamabhadra (833–836)
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